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Define assessment criteria

Competency-based assessment is a form of assessment that is derived from the specification of a set of outcomes. It states clearly the expected outcomes, so that assessors, students and interested third parties can all make reasonably objective judgements with respect to student achievement or non-achievement. It certifies student progress on the basis of demonstrated achievement of these outcomes. Assessments are not tied to time served in educational settings (see Deißinger/Hellwig, 2011, 16).

Principles of assessment (adapted from Deißinger/Hellwig, 2011, 17)






It may not be possible to observe all of these principles when national legislation and procedures have to be respected. An important aspect for the implementation of an assessment of learning outcomes is their connectivity to examination regulations.

The relevant steps of assessments below formal qualifications are (see Schöpf/Reglin 2012a, 140):

  1. Identify learning outcomes
  2. Assess learning outcomes according to predefined criteria
  3. Validate the assessment, i. e. have it recognised by the relevant authority
  4. Decide on documentation

Outcome assessments below „official“ examinations can be carried out either in case a trainee takes to another training path or as steps of formative evaluation accompanying the entire training.

Types of assessment

Here is an overview of current types of assessment (adapted from Deißinger/Hellwig 2011, 18):

Assessment method Observation
Evidence Product and/or process on-the-job
Techniques Checklists, rating scales, log books, skills books, work experience diary, interaction analysis, peer assessments, time series analysis
Testing process Checking, categorising, rating
Assessment method Skills tests
Evidence Work sample, skill sample, practical project
Techniques Checklists, rating scales, research tasks, assignments
Testing process Checking, categorising, rating
Assessment method Simulations
Evidence Simulation, observation of product and /or process
Techniques Case studies, simulators, computer-adaptive tests, faults-findings
Testing process Checking, categorising, rating
Assessment method Evidence of prior learning/chievement
Evidence Examination of evidence
Techniques Certification, transcripts, portfolios
Testing process Checking, categorising, rating
Assessment method Questioning
Evidence Oral, written, questioning
Techniques Supply answer (short answer, restricted essay, extended essay) vs. select answer (multiple choice, matching, completion, truefalse, alternate answer, identification), viva voce or oral exam, self-ratings
Testing process Checking, categorising, rating